Etymology English BCE
The symbols in brackets are among some of the most potent in modern English. Each word reflects and generates our worldview in significant ways. Some are so potent that their wise use can sustain great civilization and their misuse can destroy humankind.
This timeline illustrates their original use thousands of years ago in what is called the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). Observe how in general the words are associated with meanings that are rich in wisdom.
|PIE||ar-ti (art)||"fit together, join, complete"||Assoc: assemble, develop|
|PIE||bheue (be)||- "to be, exist, grow, come into being,"||Assoc: exist|
|PIE||ker (carbon)||"heat, fire, to burn"||Assoc: combustion|
|PIE||kemb? (change)||"to bend, crook, to turn"||Assoc: transform|
|PIE||gel (cool)||"cold, to freeze"||Assoc: loss or lack of heat, outflow of thermal energy|
|Old English |
|ofdune (down)||"downwards," from dune "from the hill," dative of dun "hill"||Assoc: change of status, lowering, decreasing|
|PIE||oikonomos (economy)||"manager, steward," from oikos "house, abode, dwelling"||Assoc: stewardship, care|
|PIE Greek||elektron (electric)||"amber", substances which, like amber, attract other substances when rubbed||Assoc: force, movement|
|PIE||energon (energy)||from energos "active, working," from en "at" + ergon "work, that which is wrought; business; action"||Assoc: active, operating, being|
|PIE?||environ (environment)||en- "in" (see en- (1)) + viron "a circle, circuit,||Assoc: enclosure, containment, exclusion|
|PIE||merph, morphe (form)||" beauty, outward appearance"||Assoc: shape or appearance of something|
|PIE||gene (generate)||"produce, give birth, beget,"||Assoc: creation|
|PIE||poti (potent, potential)||"powerful, lord, able, capable, possible||Assoc: capacity to act, operate|
|PIE||poti (power )||"powerful, lord, able, capable, possible||Assoc: capacity to act|
|PIE Latin||resurgure (resource)||re "again, anew" surge "rise, turn"||Assoc: repeatable change|
|"to cut, to split", rend, cleave,"||Assoc: separation, division|
|PIE||tra (transform)||tra -"to cross over", form, shape||Assoc: change of shape or form|
|PIE||upo (up)||"up from below"||Assoc: change of status - rising, increasing|
|PIE?||virti? (warm)||"to cook" boil bake roast||Assoc: sustain a heat level, inflow of thermal energy|
|PIE Sanskrit||sunya-m, sifr (zero)||"empty place, desert, naught" (see cipher (n.)).||Assoc: empty, no being|
History of English Language: Proto-Indo-European period.Note: Estimates based on phonology and lexicon indicate PIE prevailed 3000 -10,000 BCE. The world population was then fewer than 20 million.
Modern use timeline to be constructed on separate page.